Tuesday, 15 May 2018

Auckland Sailors Home 1887- designed by Edward Bartley

Auckland Sailors Home 1887 Image taken on completion by Richardson.From BFA collection

It is all about seafarers today.
The intention here to to answer some queries about the Auckland Sailors Home which used to stand at the bottom of Albert St. I confess to a second purpose though - to put in a plug for the Mission to Seafarers.
Marsden Point is our local port here in Ruakaka. It is growing at a tremendous rate with the opening of container facilities and increased shipping schedules. We have a seafarer's centre too, run by volunteers who also do ship visits. More help would be most appreciated - here and in all New Zealand ports.
The men and women who crew merchant ships ensure the transportation of fuels and goods which sustain our way of life -but they have a low profile. Their issues with working conditions and isolation seldom make the media.
On-board internet access while at sea is now available but it has brought about a lessening of actual engagement during voyages - according to the Crew Connectivity Report published this year.  Volunteer and community support from citizens of host ports is still essential to seamen. If you live in a port town anywhere in the world you have a Seafarer's Centre. Please consider how you may help out there. We are all international citizens aren't we?

Details of Seafarer's Centres in New Zealand today may be found here

Now let's take a look at a story of generosity to seafarers from the 1880's.

Edward Bartley designed the Sailors' Home in 1886 but a benefactor made it possible. This was Edward Costley who was a resident of Auckland. He had no dependants and lived very frugally. When he died in April 1883 the bulk of his estate was divided amongst seven public institutions: Auckland Hospital; the Old Peoples’ Home; the Parnell Orphan House; the Auckland Institute; the Auckland Free Public Library; the Sailors’ Home and the Boys Training Institute at Kohimarama.

Costley's memorial in Symond's St Cemetery erected by citizens of Auckland. Image BFA

The Government initially made a claim for the whole of the money left in the Costley legacy to be handed over. That  move met strong resistance. Both the Hospital Committee and the Trustees of Mr. Costley’s bequest knew local bodies would soon become responsible for the maintenance of their own hospitals and charitable institutions under the new Hospital and Charitable Boards Act. They fought hard and won. It took three years but at last the funds were paid out in  December 1886.

The bequest to the Sailors’ Home was £12,150 and, as a result of this gift, a non-profit making corporation was established to take over the functions of the Sailors’ Rest. 1
This new organisation was to erect the Auckland Sailors’ Home and to administer the funds supplied by the bequest. The Harbour Board granted a site at the foot of Albert St for the use of the new Home, in an exchange for the site of the old Sailors’ Rest.

Competitive designs were called for in April 1886, with Mr. Wade, president of the Institute of Architects appointed as judge.  Being successful, Edward prepared working plans in July for a three storey brick building with white stone facings. Tenders were called for in January 1887. The original design Edward  put forward was unacceptable on the grounds of expense. He was asked to rework his plans to meet the limit.

Following a fire testing demonstration, Edward argued strongly for a new product - Blaikie's fire resistant plastering system. He used his good rapport with the Press to emphasise the importance of fire safety. The Trustees accepted amended plans and the necessity for using the new system on the top two floors, bringing the total cost for building and foundations to £3135. Thomas Colebrook's was the winning tender for the work.2
The brief was to provide adequate accommodation and facilities for seamen without excessive expense or ornamentation. The result was a restrained and well-proportioned building on a corner site fronting both Albert and Quay Streets. It opened on 1 December 1887.3

The facilities included a social room, hall, dining room, library, chaplain’s room and management accommodation, apart from sleeping accommodation for seamen and officers. At the time the feature most commented on was the grand stairway to the upper floors. This rose from the centre of the building and was accessible from all parts. The most imposing view of the stairway was from the vestibule of the main Quay St entrance, giving a sense of heightened drama and upward movement as the centre of the building was approached.

This image from Auckland Museum's collection shows the lobby in the mid 20th century. Some remnants of the original architecture can still  be seen. 

A hall was later built alongside to seat 300 people. Religious services, musical evenings and socials attracted good attendance where mariners could mix comfortably with locals, supervised by an active management committee. A key philosophy of the institution was its 'open door' policy. All mariners were welcome regardless of race or creed. 
The building was demolished during the late 20th century redevelopment of Quay St.

This mid 20th century image shows the two frontages, here looking up Albert St from Quay St. Image APL 020-15

1. Refer NZH 5 April 1886 page 3
2. Ibid 7 April 1887 laying of the foundation stone, 1 Dec 1887 completion
3. Ibid 2 Dec 1887 opening ceremony

Wednesday, 2 May 2018

1ZB Broadcasting House Durham St Auckland by Alva Bartley

Broadcasting House, this and all promotional images shown here 1941 probably by Doree & Sache
 SGGSC 915 Album  148.0003
Today we explore a building designed by Alva Bartley, son of Clement Bartley. This is not one we can visit today. We do have some wonderful images though. Auckland Public Libraries Special Collections has digitised images from the agency Doree & Sache.

Alva Bartley and Norman Wade were in partnership from 1920 until 1935.  More information on Alva's early career is available here.
When Norman Wade set up on his own he retained the Auckland Harbour Board as a client. Alva Bartley retained the broadcasting business. This was now under the National Broadcasting Service, established in 1936. Both men continued to explore the potential of the Modern Style which was such a feature of their work together.

In 1939 Alva designed Auckland's second purpose built broadcasting building. In partnership with Norman Wade he had already completed the 1YA building in Shortland St. This brief was for a much grander affair.

The Government purchased land in Durham St, behind His Majesty's Theatre. The site was being used as a car park. It offered a street frontage of about 42 metres ( 139 ft) and a depth of 18.6 m (61 ft).
The site of Broadcasting House crner Durham St West and Durham lane AWN 1 Sep 1939

 The contract price of £70, 000 was confirmed just two months into the Second World War, in November 1939.1 N Cole Ltd of Auckland secured the building contract.
Construction began in 1940. By October 1941 the building was open and operational.2

Front Entrance SGGSC 915 Album  148.0002

Two views of the central stairwell, from above and below 

Alva had some interesting talent working with him on this project.
Imi Porsolt, a talented European emigree, was one. His contribution to New Zealand art and architecture was later profoundly influential, both as a teacher and as a practitioner. 3
Raymond Thorpe, later of Cutter Thorpe, was another. He had worked with Lippencott previously.
These men, with their associates such as Ralph Pickmere, would take a lead role in shaping art, design and architecture in post-war New Zealand.
The staircase from the entrance way.
The same staircase from the first floor foyer

This design has been described as New Zealand's first truly modernist building. That may be so. It must have look extremely luxurious to war-time Auckland. The style was glamorous and confident- both qualities associated with broadcasting technology. The new broadcasting theatre it contained was highly praised. Big bands played here before live audiences. It remained an important contributor to New Zealand music in many genres.
The building was removed in 1990 about the same time as its neighbour His Majesty's Theatre.

The Theo Walter Band performing in the live broadcasting theatre. 1941 SGGSC 915 Album  148.0019
A close up of the Art Deco styling details on the theatre stage SGGSC 915 Album  148.0021

Enjoy the rest of the images - our thanks to APL
Inside one of the recording studios. SGGSC 915 Album  148.0035

An interior and exterior view of a studio SGGSC 915 Album  148.0029 & 31
Control room, recording studio SGGSC 915 Album  148.0033
Studio reception area SGGSC 915 Album  148.0025

Executive offices SGGSC 915 Album  148.0038

Office area SGGSC 915 Album  148.0026
First Floor Foyer SGGSC 915 Album  148.0012

1. Ref NZH 3 Nov 1939
2. Ref AS 7 Oct 1941
3. See University of Auckland Architecture Archive Porsolt entries

Tuesday, 1 May 2018

Elam and the arts

Why closing the art libraries at Auckland University is a really big deal

Our forebears would no doubt be dismayed. Their efforts to establish a rich cultural expression in music, art, theatre and literature provided us with a privileged environment. 120 years later that legacy is in dire straits.

The original intention of Dr Elam was for a free public art school for the citizens of Auckland. It opened in 1889 with Mr Payton appointed as the first teaching master.
The actual words of the bequest make clear the intention was not for profit. The intention was to enrich the lives of individuals in the community.

NZH 29 June 1886

It was not the first such initiative. Dr Logan Campbell’s Free School of Art opened 2 November 1878 (NZH 31.12.1889). Dr Campbell closed his establishment in 1889 because the Elam School of Art was ready to open, thus ensuring the continued art education of the public.
Let’s be clear – the Elam bequest was no aberration. Those who established this city envisioned a rich cultural expression supported by shared values of equity. Commerce was the means supporting community – not the rationale for dismantling it.

The library that developed with the Elam School of Art now constitutes a resource of more than regional significance – there is no other like it in our part of the world.

Closing the Elam library and other arts libraries at University of Auckland is symptomatic of a wider pattern. We inherited institutions ensuring the arts were available to all. What have we built for those who come after? What are they to inherit from us?

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

Otto. Keven. Hannken, Waddell and Nicolle


Today we look at some of the research queries received in the last few weeks. There is some fantastic work going on. The purpose of this post is twofold- to publicise some recent activity and to invite your assistance and connection with other researchers.

Jan in Australia has recently linked up with other Hannken 'cousins' through the Ancestry DNA network. She is looking for a copy of Philip Hannken's biography of his father Frederick titled 'The Pioneer'. Her copy (now lost) was in a plain green binding, probably published privately in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. Does anyone own a copy which could be scanned and shared?

Still on Hannken matters- a researcher asks: does anyone know the whereabouts of the Hannken/Waddell family album auctioned through Art & Object in August 2015. The catalogue entry reads:
31 carte de visites mostly portraits by Hemus & Hanna, Queen St,
Auckland with several different logos verso. Single images by Clarke
Brothers, Queen St, Auckland; R.H. Bartlett Auckland; Foy Brothers
Thames; E. Willmott, Queen
St Auckland; Gregorys Ponsonby Road; Tuttles & Co Auckland, Josiah
Martin Auckland.
The photographs appear to mainly members of the Waddell and
Hannken families.
Two images of shop frontages one of ‘Hannken Bros First Cheap Cash
Sale’ and one of Waddell Steam Biscuit Factory.
Some of the photographs are faded with some spotting mostly G to
All in a small oblong album bound with squares of mother of pearl,
brass clasps and aleather spine, the album is worn with loose pages
and the spine is split.
$300 - $400

Turning now to Otto/Keven history. Jeremy is researching the early life of Thomas Keven. He is particularly interested in picking up the trail from Australia back to Britain. Would anyone currently working in the same area be interested in collaborating?

Jeremy has also explored the Nicolle family in considerable detail, using primary source material to establish the lineage of Eliza Nicolle wife of George Otto. He draws attention to the number of unsubstantiated trees for Nicolle which have been published and highlights the potential pitfalls for researchers. Jeremy has shared his research here see Descendants of George Nicolle.

Sunday, 25 March 2018

Alva Martin Bartley- Architect of Landmark House Auckland

Alva consults the plans for Broadcasting House 

Today we introduce Alva Bartley, an Auckland architect influential during the interwar period.

The purpose of this post is to provide some biographical information and to clear up the question I get asked most often - was Alva a son of Edward Bartley?
The short answer is No. One of the implications of that fact I see as this- researchers may wish to reassess any assumptions concerning the influences on the architecture of Alva Bartley and Norman Wade. Just a thought.

Alva was born in Auckland in 1891, a son of Clement Bartley and grandson of Robert Bartley. As a 16 year old he passed the preliminary trades examination in technical drawing1 and three years later attained a first class pass in the South Kensington examinations. 2 At the end of 1910 he passed the Auckland Technical College programme in Architectural Design.3 Alva went on to study at Elam School of Art. 4 In 1917 he qualified 5 and married Alice Creamer.6He then embarked with the 30th Reinforements on 30 May of that year.7

There is much confusion in printed sources about Alva's pre-war study, which is why I am labouring the details in this early part of his story. Some commentators assert that Alva worked in the office of Bartley & Son before the war- the architectural practice of his great-uncle Edward Bartley in partnership with Alfred Bartley. If that is so no evidence has yet come to light. It is more likely a confusion around the identity of the A M Bartley working there - which was certainly Alfred Martin Bartley not Alva Martin Bartley. Alfred was indeed Edward's son and an architectural draftsman, but he was also an older man better known for his exceptional musical career than for design.

Alva may have had opportunity for further study while in Britain with our armed forces. His discharge documents are dated 29 July 1919 and he returned as associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects 8 We can estimate that date of return to New Zealand at late September 1919. The first tender advertisement for Alva Bartley and Norman Wade is dated October 1919, 9 from their presmises at the Brunswick Buildings in Queen St Auckland.10

Alva's business partner Norman Wade NZG 15 July1905

The Bartley-Wade partnership was a successful collaboration. Apart from the Power Board building, known as Landmark House, their designs include those for Radio NZ - the 1YA building and De Brett's Hotel. We take a closer look at some of those in later posts.

Landmark House 1929 Category 1 Historic Places Trust SGGSC 1104-8

1. ref NZH 23 Dec 1907
2. ref AES 7 Jan 1910
3. Ibid 23 Dec 1910 - note Malcolm Draffin also a classmate.
4. Ibid 2 July 1915
5 NZ Govt Gazette 1917
6. NZRBDM 1917/5858
7. ref AES 30 May 1917
8. WWI Attestation Sheets RB 56090
9. AES 22 Oct 1919
10. 174 Queen St. Both the Brunswick buildings and the Warwick Building next door were designed by Wade and Wade Architects and comprise two of the buildings making up the Canterbury Arcade.

Tuesday, 6 March 2018

The Auckland Mahlstick Club established in 1885 & Edwin Bartley

Auckland Mahlstick Club 1893. APL Image 5-1673. Artists include: Leech, John (Harold); Abercrombie, F J, Pheney, R, Bartley, Edwin, Holland, J C, Carter, C M, Drummond, R A, Horsley, J, Wright, Walter, Gregory, G, Stuart, S, Leech, H, Bollard, W A, Yearbury, J, Ball, T, Wright, Frank, Felkin, W, Trenwith, M, Debney, R J, Drummond, T I

A change of emphasis this week. While I was researching the Auckland Industrial Exhibition 1898, featured in previous posts, I noticed the quality of the art submitted for that exhibition. Clearly the arts in Auckland were flourishing and confident in the late nineteenth century. Exhibitions were a significant platform for established artists but what of the young ones coming through? What were their opportunities? This post looks at their Auckland 'art scene' and one organisation in particular - the Mahlstick Club.

The Auckland Society of Arts was an active organisation, particularly after its reconstitution in 1880. So there was ample opportunity to exhibit locally but within the conservative context to the required standard, on conventional subjects. The only venues for the collegial exchange of new ideas and expertise were personal and social and, by extension, invisible.

After the ASA exhibition of 1885 four artists responded with a solution of their own. The Auckland Mahlstick Club 1 was formed by  Thomas Ball ( first president), Thomas L Drummond, Mr Felkin and RJ Debney. Una Platts dismissed this group as 'a congenial group of ASA painters'.2 I submit they were more than that. They also had the support of a group amongst the old guard of ASA members, including Edward Bartley, Mackechnie and Peyton.

These older men were very aware of the potential a free, relatively 'classless' society offered here. Ideally, in New Zealand every person could improve themselves by the study of the liberal arts. They were 'liberal' because traditionally they were only available to the free man and not the slave. These men were interested in accessing knowledge for mutual improvement. They were practical people able to apply the latest technology and innovation in artistic expression as easily as engineering. The application of photography, projection and microsopy in their art is relevant here.

It may seem strange to a 21st century mind that such issues as the 40 Hour Working Week and free universal education should be playing out in the art world but they did- and still do, though today we tend to perceive the issues as more financial than philosophical.

Mahlstick Club membership was originally limited to 12 members. They laid an emphasis on black and white work – drawing and sketching in pen, ink, charcoal and chalk particularly. 3 Members gathered in each other’s house for sketching practice and to exchange ideas and information about art matters. They were young and emerging artists for the most part.

This was not a splinter group off the ASA but an enrichment group. They remained members of ASA and supported that society's exhibitions with a regular, high quality body of work.
The Club quickly gained the support of Frank and Walter Wright of Wright's Studios in Auckland. These men were Edwin Bartley's tutors. It is likely they introduced him and others to the 'inner circle' of this emerging art community. Its emergence was rapid too.4

The positive influence of the Mahstick Club on the study and practice of art in Auckland was acknowledged at the time.  After an exhibition of their work at an Athenaeum conversatione held in the Museum Institute 30 November 1886,5 the Society of Arts then took up their black and white theme  in their own exhibition in 1887, to which the Club contributed a number of drawings.

At the opening of that exhibition Mr Mackechnie, the president, not only reinforced the importance of sound drawing skills for artists. He laid emphasis on the wider applications of practical art training, referring to drawing skills as ‘the right hand of the workman and the mainstay of a technical education. If we are to have local industries and manufactures among us our people must have instruction in the art of drawing to acquire freedom of hand and facility of execution.’6
It helps us to understand that concerns over the lack of practical art, design and technical training facilities in Auckland formed the background to these remarks.

By 1891 the Mahlstick Club had over 20 members. A weekly life drawing class was held along with regular sketching expeditions. They now met in larger rooms with a more formal meeting structure.
NZH 8 Aug 1891

For the young ones coming through a goal was acceptance into the Cantebury art school. At this time the best teaching and most progressive climate was found in Christchurch. There a sister organisation, the Cantebury Palette Club, was soon formed with ex-pat Mahlstick Club members such as Edwin Bartley at its core.
A regular exchange of work between the centres formed an enriching inter-provincial dialogue. Works were loaned for exhibition in both centres. A strongly New Zealand voice was beginning to emerge now. The focus of attention was on place- their place and their time- rather than on European historical motifs as inspiration. There was less inclination in this Mahstick group to view the 'indigenous' place or person as a picturesque 'other' - a tendency of colonial period art discussed by Rebecca Rice in her 2010 thesis found here

The Mahlstick Club continued into the pre-war years, by then itself so 'establishment' an institution that papers presented to its meetings were published in full by the daily press.7 So the Great Wheel turns would you say?

1. A mahlstick is a piece of artist's equipment - a light stick with a padded leather ball at one end, held against work by a painter to support and steady the brush hand.
2. Una Platts, 'Nineteenth Century New Zealand Artists: A Guide and Handbook' 1979 Avon House page 163. Digital Copy here
3. Ref NZH 31 Oct 1891
4.Edwin Bartley is one example of the young men and women establishing their art practice in the 1880s and 90s. His career is covered in a previous post, found here.
5. Ref AES 26 Nov 1886, NZH 03 Dec 1886
6. Ref AES 20 Oct 1887
7. Ref AES 1 Aug 1908

Friday, 23 February 2018

The Grey Statue Auckland City

NZGraphic 05 Nov 1904

The Statue of Governor Grey now in Albert Park is one of early Auckland's signature pieces of statuary. The 21st Century Aucklander is likely to view this artwork and George Grey's career in a very different light to their 19th and 20th Century counterparts.

Edward Bartley was involved in this project. So today we explore the history of the statue -while gingerly stepping around the sensitivities associated with the gentleman represented.

A memorial committee was formed in 1898 to organise events and tributes associated with Grey's memorial day on 18 February 1899. This was a national memorial day, coinciding with similar events in Australia and South Africa.
During the Auckland Industrial and Mining Exhibition,1 which opened that year, donations to a memorial fund were collected. A special Exhibition Day was also organised, from which a portion of gate takings were allocated to the fund. 2
AWN 24 Feb 1899

Afterwards subsciptions were requested to top up the fund. A more permanent tribute was planned. The statue was commissioned in 1903, to which the Government contributed £100. The remainder of the cost - over £1800- was raised by those public subscriptions. It was a considerable investment made by Aucklanders.

In 1904 Edward Bartley was engaged to design a base for the statue. Once the site was finally agreed on he recommended that something in the style of Dublin's Oliver Goldsmith statue was appropriate.3

The Goldsmith statue, Trinity College Dublin. Image Dublin Tales visit here

The statue itself was produced in England by Francis J Williamson of London for £1260 and shipped to New Zealand by the Wakanui in September 1904.

This was a conservative selection of sculptor by the committee. Williamson received regular commissions from municipal and civic clients in the United Kingdom. His bust of the mature Queen Victoria was replicated many times. Critics noted his work lacked any fluid vitality but it was certainly 'appropriate' and fulfilled the intended function of commemmoration.

The marble statue was 8' high (2.4m). The granite for both pedestal and base were sourced from Coromandel, rising 14'6". Plaques on each side record Grey's service to the Empire and the tributes accorded to him by northern New Zealand:
NZH 21 Dec 1904

On 21 December 1904 the work was unveiled. Part of the proceedings included a phonograph recording made by Grey in February 1891.
AWN 29 Dec 1904

AWN 29 Dec 1904

The elevated site - at the intersection of Queen and Grey St- was well chosen. The fire-bell tower was there in Grey's time and formed a rallying point for political gatherings and temperance assemblies.

That it continued to be so is clear from this image of M J Savage addressing Aucklanders in 1912.

AWN 26 Sept 1912. note the statue's position relative to the Town Hall.

The Grey statue  moved to Albert Park in 1922, where it may be seen today. The stepped platform has been removed. This alteration to the proportions of the whole assembly presents a less than ideal composition. The work was never intended to retire into a restful or contemplative park atmosphere.

Image APL E7-23 Albert Park

It may be that the intention was to more remove Aucklander's political gathering place.  In declaring the Governor's memorial a traffic hazard were the civic planners hoping to dampen the rallying leadership of strong personalities -by then more feared than in colonial days?

Certainly statuary encapsulates the values of the times in which they were made. Each generation views their own cultural- and sculptural- story through the lens of their own time and debates their erection or removal accordingly. Historian Grant Morris discussed these issues in a September 2017 interview recorded here. Enjoy.

1. see more information here
2. NZH 24 Jan 1899
3. AS 26 May 1904

Sunday, 18 February 2018

Auckland Industrial and Mining Exhibition 1898 pt II

Last post we looked at Auckland Exhibition of 1898 and Ed Bartley's role on some of the organising committees. Here we consider the closing stages of that event and ask: what was the result?

In mid January an interactive display was held over two nights in the Choral Hall.
Here the public had the opportunity of seeing experiments in electro/magnetism and other aspects of physics provided by the University College. For many this was their first exposure to the potenial uses of electricity.
Edward Bartley and other members of the Auckland Microscopic Club were on hand with the largest collection of microscopes ever seen in the region. There were 100 laid out with specimens which the public were invited to view.1 Edward was a founder member of the organisation, which was formed in 1885, and included fellow Auckland Institute members J A Pond and Josiah Martin.
This educational focus on innovation in science, technology and research was key to the Exhibition.

A Portrait Image c 1900 BFA
The push to establish a full time technical school in Auckland was also advanced by the exhibition. Edward was one of the founders of the Auckland Technical Association which had been campaigning for technical training in Auckland. By 1895 evening classes were available but there was still no  daytime programme for school leavers. Wellington already had such a school run by the Education Board on the South Kensington School curriculum.

Only two months after the exhibition the Education Board was making enquiries about a site in Wellesley St to be a combined teacher and technical training facility. Despite the support of the University College for pre-tertiary technical training, it was the Auckland association that provided a day school. The Auckland Technical School opened in 1903.

The exhibition also measurably advanced educational opportunities for the blind. Dr Purchas' braille printing machine was both invented in Auckland and first exhibited at this Auckland event. It allowed for a semi-mechanised production of braille type by impress on a copper drum- a huge improvement on the hand punching method then in use.2

Buoyed by their local success some Auckland exhibitors were already looking to London and to the proposed Paris Exposition Universelle, the international celebration of the new century of commercial opportunity. This was a world fair due to open on 14 April 1900. The Greater Britain section had provision for New Zealand exhibits.

The Auckland exhibition was visited by Hon L L Smith of Victoria - a member of the executive committee for Greater Britain representation. In an open letter to the press he expressed the view, with regard to Paris: 'you have here the nucleus...of a first class New Zealand exhibition.'3

Northern businessmen were keen to make their own arrangements. For example the Thames Machinery Company made offers to their counterparts in Victoria and Queensland to mount a joint display of cyanide extraction techniques.4

In late January the Governor's office advised the premises would be required on the 1 March.

NZH 18 Jan 1899

There was earlier such an outcry at a suggested closing date of 18 February that the exhibition remained open until the last available day -28th February. Not only did the event run at a profit, it was held to have fulfilled the intentions of the Auckland Chamber of Commerce in that it performed 'all that was expected of it as a public educator and an advertising medium for the products of the colony.'5 

The buildings were purchased by the industrialist JJ Craig of Auckland.

The Exhibitor award medals for the exhibition. Image AWMM

For those interested in the history of exhibitions and world fairs we recommend a visit here
You may enjoy a rare film archive of Exposition Universelle Paris 1900 here

1. NZH 18 Jan 1899- 20 Jan 1899
2. Ibid 14 Jan 1899. For Dr Purchas' biography see here
3. Ibid 30 Jan 1899
4. Ibid 16 Mar 1899
5. Ibid  28 Feb 1899